David St John Dissertation

  • Ultrasound Assisted Casting of an AM60 Based Metal Matrix Nanocomposite, Its Properties, and Recyclability

    Dieringa, Hajo, Katsarou, Lydia, Buzolin, Ricardo, Szakacs, Gabor, Horstmann, Manfred, Wolff, Martin, Mendis, Chamini, Vorozhtsov, Sergey and StJohn, David (2017) Ultrasound Assisted Casting of an AM60 Based Metal Matrix Nanocomposite, Its Properties, and Recyclability. Metals, 7 10: . doi:10.3390/met7100388

  • The Effect of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment on Macro-Segregation and Peritectic Transformation in an Al-19Si-4Fe Alloy

    Todaro, C. J., Easton, M. A., Qiu, D., Wang, G., StJohn, D. H. and Qian, M. (2017) The Effect of Ultrasonic Melt Treatment on Macro-Segregation and Peritectic Transformation in an Al-19Si-4Fe Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 48 11: 5579-5590. doi:10.1007/s11661-017-4325-1

  • Metal injection moulding of titanium and titanium alloys: challenges and recent development

    Dehghan-Manshadi, A., Bermingham, M. J., Dargusch, M. S., StJohn, D. H. and Qian, M. (2017) Metal injection moulding of titanium and titanium alloys: challenges and recent development. Powder Technology, 319 289-301. doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2017.06.053

  • Role of ultrasonic treatment, inoculation and solute in the grain refinement of commercial purity aluminium

    Wang, G., Wang, Q., Easton, M. A., Dargusch, M. S., Qian, M., Eskin, D. G. and StJohn, D. H. (2017) Role of ultrasonic treatment, inoculation and solute in the grain refinement of commercial purity aluminium. Scientific Reports, 7 1: . doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10354-6

  • Identifying the stages during ultrasonic processing that reduce the grain size of aluminum with added Al3Ti1B master alloy

    Wang, Gui, Dargusch, Matthew S., Eskin, Dmitry G. and StJohn, David H. (2017) Identifying the stages during ultrasonic processing that reduce the grain size of aluminum with added Al3Ti1B master alloy. Advanced Engineering Materials, 19 8: . doi:10.1002/adem.201700264

  • Simulation of convective flow and thermal conditions during ultrasonic treatment of an Al-2Cu alloy

    Wang, Gui, Croaker, Paul, Dargusch, Matthew, McGuckin, Damian and StJohn, David (2017) Simulation of convective flow and thermal conditions during ultrasonic treatment of an Al-2Cu alloy. Computational Materials Science, 134 116-125. doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2017.03.041

  • Synchrotron X-ray tomographic quantification of microstructural evolution in ice cream-a multi-phase soft solid

    Guo, Enyu, Zeng, Guang, Kazantsev, Daniil, Rockett, Peter, Bent, Julian, Kirkland, Mark, Van Dalen, Gerard, Eastwood, David S., StJohn, David and Lee, Peter D. (2017) Synchrotron X-ray tomographic quantification of microstructural evolution in ice cream-a multi-phase soft solid. RSC Advances, 7 25: 15561-15573. doi:10.1039/c7ra00642j

  • Grain refinement of wire arc additively manufactured titanium by the addition of silicon

    Mereddy, S., Bermingham, M. J., StJohn, D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2017) Grain refinement of wire arc additively manufactured titanium by the addition of silicon. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 695 2097-2103. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.11.049

  • On grain coarsening and refining of the Mg-3Al alloy by Sm

    Hu, Xiaoyu, Fu, Penghuai, St John, David, Peng, Liming, Sun, Ming and Zhang, Mingxing (2016) On grain coarsening and refining of the Mg-3Al alloy by Sm. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 663 387-394. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.11.193

  • Massive transformation in Ti-6Al-4V additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting

    Lu, S. L., Qian, M., Tang, H. P., Yan, M., Wang, J. and St John, D. H. (2016) Massive transformation in Ti-6Al-4V additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting. Acta Materialia, 104 303-311. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2015.11.011

  • Recent advances in grain refinement of light metals and alloys

    Easton, M. A., Qian, M., Prasad, A. and StJohn, D. H. (2016) Recent advances in grain refinement of light metals and alloys. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 20 1: 13-24. doi:10.1016/j.cossms.2015.10.001

  • The influence of ternary alloying elements on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure and the Si morphology

    Darlapudi, A., McDonald, S. D., Terzi, S., Prasad, A., Felberbaum, M. and StJohn, D. H. (2016) The influence of ternary alloying elements on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure and the Si morphology. Journal of Crystal Growth, 433 63-73. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2015.10.002

  • A real-time synchrotron X-ray study of primary phase nucleation and formation in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys

    Prasad, Arvind, Macdonald, Stuart D., Yasuda, Hideyuki, Nogita, Kazuhiro and StJohn, David (2015) A real-time synchrotron X-ray study of primary phase nucleation and formation in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys. Journal of Crystal Growth, 430 122-137. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2015.06.024

  • An investigation of the mechanical behaviour of fine tubes fabricated from a Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy

    Zhang, Yaowu, Kent, Damon, Wang, Gui, St John, David and Dargusch, Matthew (2015) An investigation of the mechanical behaviour of fine tubes fabricated from a Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy. Materials and Design, 85 256-265. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.127

  • Enhanced Heterogeneous Nucleation by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation Treatment of Liquid Aluminum Containing Al3Ti1B Additions

    Liang, Dong, Sun, Jie, Liu, Tianyu, Zhai, Qijie, Wang, Gui, StJohn, David H., Dong, Hongbiao and Zhong, Honggang (2015) Enhanced Heterogeneous Nucleation by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation Treatment of Liquid Aluminum Containing Al3Ti1B Additions. Advanced Engineering Materials, 17 10: 1465-1469. doi:10.1002/adem.201400488

  • The influence of ternary Cu additions on the nucleation of eutectic grains in a hypoeutectic Al-10 wt.%Si alloy

    Darlapudi, A., McDonald, S. D. and StJohn, D. H. (2015) The influence of ternary Cu additions on the nucleation of eutectic grains in a hypoeutectic Al-10 wt.%Si alloy. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 646 699-705. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.05.223

  • A yttrium-containing high-temperature titanium alloy additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting

    Lu, Sheng-Lu, Tang, Hui-Ping, Qian, M., Hong, Quan, Zeng, Li-Ying and StJohn, D. H. (2015) A yttrium-containing high-temperature titanium alloy additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting. Journal of Central South University, 22 8: 2857-2863. doi:10.1007/s11771-015-2818-x

  • Controlling the microstructure and properties of wire arc additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V with trace boron additions

    Bermingham, M. J., Kent, D., Zhan, H., StJohn, D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2015) Controlling the microstructure and properties of wire arc additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V with trace boron additions. Acta Materialia, 91 289-303. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2015.03.035

  • The contribution of constitutional supercooling to nucleation and grain formation

    StJohn, D. H., Prasad, A., Easton, M. A. and Qian, M. (2015) The contribution of constitutional supercooling to nucleation and grain formation. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 46 11: 4868-4885. doi:10.1007/s11661-015-2960-y

  • Evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during fabrication of mini-tubes from a biomedical beta-titanium alloy

    Zhang, Yaowu, Kent, Damon, Wang, Gui, St John, David and Dargusch, Matthew (2015) Evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during fabrication of mini-tubes from a biomedical beta-titanium alloy. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 42 207-218. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.11.013

  • Grain refinement of commercial pure al treated by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation on the top surface of melt

    Liang, Dong, Liang, Zhu-yuan, Sun, Jie, Zhai, Qi-jie, Gui, Wang and StJohn, David H. (2015) Grain refinement of commercial pure al treated by Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation on the top surface of melt. China Foundry, 12 1: 48-53.

  • Microstructure and mechanical properties of long Ti-6Al-4V rods additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting out of a deep powder bed and the effect of subsequent hot isostatic pressing

    Lu, S. L., Tang, H. P., Ning, Y. P., Liu, N., StJohn, D. H. and Qian, M. (2015) Microstructure and mechanical properties of long Ti-6Al-4V rods additively manufactured by selective electron beam melting out of a deep powder bed and the effect of subsequent hot isostatic pressing. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 46 9: 3824-3834. doi:10.1007/s11661-015-2976-3

  • The role of ultrasonic treatment in refining the as-cast grain structure during the solidification of an Al–2Cu alloy

    Wang, Gui, Dargusch, M. S., Qian, M., Eskin, D. G. and St John, David H. (2014) The role of ultrasonic treatment in refining the as-cast grain structure during the solidification of an Al–2Cu alloy. Journal of Crystal Growth, 408 1: 119-124. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2014.09.018

  • Nucleation and grain formation of pure Al under Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation treatment

    Liang, Dong, Liang, Zhuyuan, Zhai, Qijie, Wang, Gui and St John, David H. (2014) Nucleation and grain formation of pure Al under Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation treatment. Materials Letters, 130 48-50. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2014.05.058

  • The cold-rolling behaviour of AZ31 tubes for fabrication of biodegradable stents

    Zhang, Yaowu, Kent, Damon, Wang, Gui, StJohn, David and Dargusch, Matthew S. (2014) The cold-rolling behaviour of AZ31 tubes for fabrication of biodegradable stents. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 39 292-303. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.07.026

  • Hot tear susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe alloys with varying iron contents

    Sweet, Lisa, Easton, Mark A., Taylor, John A., Grandfield, John F., Davidson, Cameron J., Lu, Liming, Couper, Malcolm J. and StJohn, David H. (2013) Hot tear susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe alloys with varying iron contents. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44A 12: 5396-5407. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1562-1

  • Real time synchrotron X-ray observations of solidification in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys

    Nogita, Kazuhiro, Yasuda, Hideyuki, Prasad, Arvind, McDonald, Stuart D., Nagira, Tomoya, Nakatsuka, Noriaki, Uesugi, Kentaro and StJohn, David H. (2013) Real time synchrotron X-ray observations of solidification in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. Materials Characterization, 85 134-140. doi:10.1016/j.matchar.2013.08.015

  • The Interdependence model of grain nucleation: a numerical analysis of the Nucleation-Free Zone

    Prasad, Arvind, Yuan, Lang, Lee, Peter D. and StJohn, David H. (2013) The Interdependence model of grain nucleation: a numerical analysis of the Nucleation-Free Zone. Acta Materialia, 61 16: 5914-5927. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2013.06.015

  • Grain refinement of magnesium alloys: a review of recent research, theoretical developments and their application

    St John, D. H., Easton, M. A., Qian, M. and Taylor, J. A. (2013) Grain refinement of magnesium alloys: a review of recent research, theoretical developments and their application. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44 7: 2935-2949. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1513-x

  • Grain refinement of magnesium alloys by Mg-Zr master alloys: the role of alloy chemistry and Zr particle number density

    Sun, Ming, Easton, Mark A., StJohn, David H., Wu, Guohua, Abbott, Trevor B. and Ding, Wenjiang (2013) Grain refinement of magnesium alloys by Mg-Zr master alloys: the role of alloy chemistry and Zr particle number density. Advanced Engineering Materials, 15 5: 373-378. doi:10.1002/adem.201200297

  • Observation and prediction of the hot tear susceptibility of ternary Al-Si-Mg alloys

    Easton, Mark A., Wang, Hao, Grandfield, John, Davidson, Cameron J., Stjohn, David H., Sweet, Lisa D. and Couper, Malcolm J. (2012) Observation and prediction of the hot tear susceptibility of ternary Al-Si-Mg alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 43 9: 3227-3238. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1132-6

  • Influence of chemical composition of Mg alloys on surface alloying by diffusion coating

    Hirmke, J., Zhang, M. -X. and St John, D. H. (2012) Influence of chemical composition of Mg alloys on surface alloying by diffusion coating. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 43 5: 1621-1628. doi:10.1007/s11661-011-1034-z

  • Surface alloying of AZ91E alloy by Al-Zn packed powder diffusion coating

    Hirmke, J., Zhang, M. X. and St John, D. H. (2011) Surface alloying of AZ91E alloy by Al-Zn packed powder diffusion coating. Surface and Coatings Technology, 206 2-3: 425-433. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.07.050

  • Processing considerations for cast Ti–25Nb–3Mo–3Zr–2Sn biomedical alloys

    Bermingham, M. J., McDonald, S. D., Buddery, A. J., StJohn, D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2011) Processing considerations for cast Ti–25Nb–3Mo–3Zr–2Sn biomedical alloys. Materials Science and Engineering C: Materials for Biological Applications, 31 7: 1520-1525. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2011.06.011

  • The Interdependence Theory: The relationship between grain formation and nucleant selection

    StJohn, D. H., Qian, M., Easton, M. A. and Cao, P. (2011) The Interdependence Theory: The relationship between grain formation and nucleant selection. Acta Materialia, 59 12: 4907-4921. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2011.04.035

  • Grain morphology of as-cast wrought aluminium alloys

    Easton, Mark, Davidson, Cameron and St John, David (2011) Grain morphology of as-cast wrought aluminium alloys. Materials Transactions, 52 5: 842-847. doi:10.2320/matertrans.L-MZ201118

  • The effect of boron on the refinement of microstructure in cast cobalt alloys

    Bermingham, Michael J., McDonald, Stuart D., StJohn, David H. and Dargusch, Matthew S. (2011) The effect of boron on the refinement of microstructure in cast cobalt alloys. Journal of Materials Research, 26 7: 951-956. doi:10.1557/jmr.2011.21

  • Effects of boron on microstructure in cast zirconium alloys

    Dargusch, M. S., Bermingham, M. J., McDonald, S. D. and St John, D. H. (2010) Effects of boron on microstructure in cast zirconium alloys. Journal of Materials Research, 25 9: 1695-1700. doi:10.1557/JMR.2010.0233

  • The effect of solute on ultrasonic grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    Qian, M., Ramirez, A., Das, A. and St John, D. H. (2010) The effect of solute on ultrasonic grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Journal of Crystal Growth, 312 15: 2267-2272. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.04.035

  • Effect of alloy composition on the dendrite arm spacing of multicomponent aluminum alloys

    Easton, Mark, Davidson, Cameron and St John, David (2010) Effect of alloy composition on the dendrite arm spacing of multicomponent aluminum alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 41 6: 1528-1538. doi:10.1007/s11661-010-0183-9

  • An analytical model for constitutional supercooling-driven grain formation and grain size prediction

    Qian, M., Cao, P., Easton, M. A., McDonald, S. D. and St John, D. H. (2010) An analytical model for constitutional supercooling-driven grain formation and grain size prediction. Acta Materialia, 58 9: 3262-3270. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2010.01.052

  • The effect of aluminium content on the eutectic morphology of high pressure die cast magnesium-aluminium alloys

    Dargusch, M. S., Nave, M., McDonald, S. D. and StJohn, D. H. (2010) The effect of aluminium content on the eutectic morphology of high pressure die cast magnesium-aluminium alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 492 1-2: L64-L68. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.11.199

  • Titanium as an endogenous grain-refining nucleus

    Bermingham, M. J., McDonald, S. D., St John, D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2010) Titanium as an endogenous grain-refining nucleus. Philosophical Magazine, 90 6: 699-715. doi:10.1080/14786430903236057

  • An overview of magnesium research at CAST

    St John, David H., Easton, M. and Qian, Ma (2010) An overview of magnesium research at CAST. Metal Casting Technologies, 56 2: 30-35.

  • The loss of dissolved zirconium in zirconium-refined magnesium alloys after remelting

    Qian, M., Hildebrand, Z.C.G. and StJohn, D. H. (2009) The loss of dissolved zirconium in zirconium-refined magnesium alloys after remelting. Metallurgical and materials transactions. A, Physical metallurgy and materials science, 40 10: 2470-2479. doi:10.1007/s11661-009-9928-8

  • Latest developments in understanding grain refinement of cast titanium

    Bermingham, Michael, McDonald, Stuart, Dargusch, Matthew and St John, David (2009) Latest developments in understanding grain refinement of cast titanium. Light Metals Age, 67 4: 47-49.

  • Beryllium as a grain refiner in titanium alloys

    Bermingham, M. J., McDonald, S. D., StJohn D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2009) Beryllium as a grain refiner in titanium alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 481 1-2: L20-L23. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.03.016

  • Segregation and grain refinement in cast titanium alloys

    Bermingham, M. J., McDonald, S. D., StJohn, D. H. and Dargusch, M. S. (2009) Segregation and grain refinement in cast titanium alloys. Journal of Materials Research, 24 4: 1529-1535. doi:10.1557/JMR.2009.0173

  • Effects of boron on microstructure in cast titanium alloys

    Bermingham, M., McDonald, S.D., Nogita, K., St John, D.H. and Dargusch, M.S. (2008) Effects of boron on microstructure in cast titanium alloys. Scripta Materialia, 59 5: 538-541. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2008.05.002

  • Investigation into the effect of nucleation parameters on grain formation during solidification using a cellular automaton-finite control volume method

    Yao, X., Dargusch, M.S., Dahle, A.K., Davidson, C.J. and St John, D.H. (2008) Investigation into the effect of nucleation parameters on grain formation during solidification using a cellular automaton-finite control volume method. Journal of Materials Research, 23 9: 2312-2325. doi:10.1557/JMR.2008.0303

  • Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    Ramirez, A., Qian Ma, Davis, B., Wilks, T. and St John, D.H. (2008) Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Scripta Materialia, 59 1: 19-22. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2008.02.017

  • Improved prediction of the grain size of aluminum alloys that includes the effect of cooling rate

    Easton, M. A. and St John, D. H. (2008) Improved prediction of the grain size of aluminum alloys that includes the effect of cooling rate. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 486 1-2: 8-13. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2007.11.009

  • The mechanism of grain refinement of titanium by silicon

    Bermingham, M., McDonald, S.D., Dargusch, M.S. and St John, D.H. (2008) The mechanism of grain refinement of titanium by silicon. Scripta Materialia, 58 12: 1050-1053. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2008.01.041

  • Modeling of grain refinement: Part I. Effect of the solute titanium for aluminum

    Yao, X., McDonald, S. D., Dahle, A. K., Davidson, C. J. and St John, D. H. (2008) Modeling of grain refinement: Part I. Effect of the solute titanium for aluminum. Journal of Materials Research, 23 5: 1282-1291. doi:10.1557/JMR.2008.0153

  • Modeling of grain refinement: Part II. Effect of nucleant particles-TiB2 additions for aluminum

    Yao, X., McDonald, S.D., Dahle, A.K., Davidson, C.J. and St John, D.H. (2008) Modeling of grain refinement: Part II. Effect of nucleant particles-TiB2 additions for aluminum. Journal of Materials Research, 23 5: 1292-1300. doi:10.1557/JMR.2008.0154

  • Modeling of grain refinement: Part III. Al-7Si-0.3Mg aluminum alloy

    Yao, X., McDonald, S. D., Dahle, A. K., Davidson, C. J. and St John, D. H. (2008) Modeling of grain refinement: Part III. Al-7Si-0.3Mg aluminum alloy. Journal of Materials Research, 23 5: 1301-1306. doi:10.1557/JMR.2008.0155

  • Subsurface deformation after dry machining of Grade 2 titanium

    Dargusch, Matthew Simon, Zhang, Ming-Xing, Palanisamy, Suresh, Buddery, Alexander John Michael and StJohn, David Henry (2008) Subsurface deformation after dry machining of Grade 2 titanium. Advanced Engineering Materials, 10 1-2: 85-88. doi:10.1002/adem.200700233

  • Grain-refinement mechanisms in titanium alloys

    Bermingham, M., McDonald, S.D., Dargusch, M.S. and St John, D.H. (2008) Grain-refinement mechanisms in titanium alloys. Journal of Materials Research, 23 1: 97-104. doi:10.1557/JMR.2008.0002

  • Modelling of grain size transition with alloy concentration in solidified Al-Si alloys

    Yao, Xiangdong, Dahle, Arne K., Davidson, Cameron J. and St John, David H. (2007) Modelling of grain size transition with alloy concentration in solidified Al-Si alloys. Journal of Materials Science, 42 23: 9756-9764. doi:10.1007/s10853-007-1997-8

  • A rationale for the acoustic monitoring of surface deformation in Ti6Al4V alloys during machining

    Palanisamy, S., Dargusch, M. S., McDonald, S., St John, D. H. and Brandt, M. (2007) A rationale for the acoustic monitoring of surface deformation in Ti6Al4V alloys during machining. Advanced Engineering Materials, 9 11: 1000-1004. doi:10.1002/adem.200700117

  • A comparative study of carbon additives on grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    Cao, Peng, Qian, M., Kondoh, Katsuyoshi and StJohn, D. H. (2007) A comparative study of carbon additives on grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Giessereiforschung [International Foundry Research], 58 4: 18-21.

  • A new analytical approach to reveal the mechanisms of grain refinement

    St John, David H., Cao, Peng, Oian, Ma and Easton, Mark A. (2007) A new analytical approach to reveal the mechanisms of grain refinement. Advanced Engineering Materials, 9 9: 739-746. doi:10.1002/adem.200700157

  • Degradation of the surface appearance of magnesium and its alloys in simulated atmospheric environments

    Song, G.L., Hapugoda, S. and St John, D. (2007) Degradation of the surface appearance of magnesium and its alloys in simulated atmospheric environments. Corrosion Science, 49 3: 1245-1265. doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2006.07.005

  • Determination of strain during hot tearing by image correlation

    Mitchell, J. B., Cockcroft, S. L., Viano, D., Davidson, C. and St John, D. (2007) Determination of strain during hot tearing by image correlation. Metallurgical And Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy And Materials Science, 38A 10: 2503-2512. doi:10.1007/s11661-007-9221-7

  • Mechanism for grain refinement of magnesium alloys by superheating

    Cao, Peng, Qian, Ma and St John, David H. (2007) Mechanism for grain refinement of magnesium alloys by superheating. Scripta Materialia, 56 7: 633-636. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2006.12.009

  • Microstructure of cast titanium alloys

    Bermingham, M., McDonald, S.D., Dargusch, M.S. and St John, D.H. (2007) Microstructure of cast titanium alloys. Materials Forum, 31 84-89.

  • The accurate determination of heat transfer coefficient and its evolution with time during high pressure die casting of Al-9%Si-3%Cu and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn alloys

    Dargusch, M.S., Hamasaiid, A., Dour, G., Loulou, T., Davidson, C.J. and St John, D.H. (2007) The accurate determination of heat transfer coefficient and its evolution with time during high pressure die casting of Al-9%Si-3%Cu and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn alloys. Advanced Engineering Materials, 9 11: 995-999. doi:10.1002/adem.200700189

  • Effect of manganese on grain refinement of Mg-Al based alloys

    Cao, Peng, Qian, Ma and St John, David H. (2006) Effect of manganese on grain refinement of Mg-Al based alloys. Scripta Materialia, 54 11: 1853-1858. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2006.02.020

  • Effect of solute on the growth rate and the constitutional undercooling ahead of the advancing interface during solidification of an alloy and the implications for nucleation

    Yao, X., Dahle, A. K., Davidson, C. J. and St John, D. H. (2006) Effect of solute on the growth rate and the constitutional undercooling ahead of the advancing interface during solidification of an alloy and the implications for nucleation. Journal Of Materials Research, 21 10: 2470-2479. doi:10.1557/JMR.2006.0302

  • Heterogeneous nucleation of Mg-Al alloys

    Lu, L., Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2006) Heterogeneous nucleation of Mg-Al alloys. Scripta Materialia, 54 12: 2197-2201. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2006.02.048

  • Observation of crack initiation during hot tearing

    Davidson, C., Viano, D., Lu, L. and St John, D. (2006) Observation of crack initiation during hot tearing. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 19 1: 59-65. doi:10.1179/136404606225023291

  • Native grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    Cao, Peng, Qian, Ma and St John, David H. (2005) Native grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Scripta Materialia, 53 7: 841-844. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2005.06.010

  • Grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    St. John, David H., Qian, Ma, Easton, Mark A., Cao, Peng and Hildebrand, Zoë (2005) Grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 36 7: 1669-1679. doi:10.1007/s11661-005-0030-6

  • The Corrosion Performance of Magnesium Alloy AM-SC1 in Automotive Engine Block Applications

    Song, Guangling, St John, David, Bettles, Colleen J. and Dunlop, Gordon L. (2005) The Corrosion Performance of Magnesium Alloy AM-SC1 in Automotive Engine Block Applications. JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 57 5: 54-56. doi:10.1007/s11837-005-0097-y

  • An analysis of the relationship between grain size, solute content, and the potency and number density of nucleant particles

    Easton, M. and St John, D. (2005) An analysis of the relationship between grain size, solute content, and the potency and number density of nucleant particles. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 36 7: 1911-1920. doi:10.1007/s11661-005-0054-y

  • Corrosion behaviour of a pressure die cast magnesium alloy

    Song, GL, St John, DH and Abbott, T (2005) Corrosion behaviour of a pressure die cast magnesium alloy. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 18 3: 174-180. doi:10.1179/136404605225022964

  • Corrosion of magnesium alloys in commercial engine coolants

    Song, G. and St John, D. H. (2005) Corrosion of magnesium alloys in commercial engine coolants. Materials And Corrosion, 56 1: 15-23. doi:10.1002/maco.200403803

  • Effect of aging on yield stress and corrosion resistance of die cast magnesium alloy

    Song, GL, Bowles, AL and St John, DH (2005) Effect of aging on yield stress and corrosion resistance of die cast magnesium alloy. Magnesium - Science, Technology And Applications, 488-489 -: 709-712.

  • Grain refinement efficiency and mechanism of aluminium carbide in Mg-Al alloys

    Lu, L., Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2005) Grain refinement efficiency and mechanism of aluminium carbide in Mg-Al alloys. Scripta Materialia, 53 5: 517-522. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2005.05.008

  • The CAST CRC: A light metals partnership between industry, government and R&D providers

    St John, D. H. (2005) The CAST CRC: A light metals partnership between industry, government and R&D providers. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 21 1: 61-64.

  • Grain coarsening of magnesium alloys by beryllium

    Cao, P., Qian, Ma and St John, D. H. (2004) Grain coarsening of magnesium alloys by beryllium. Scripta Materialia, 51 7: 647-651. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2004.06.022

  • Effect of iron on grain refinement of high-purity MG-Al alloys

    Cao, P., Qian, Ma and St John, D. H. (2004) Effect of iron on grain refinement of high-purity MG-Al alloys. Scripta Materialia, 51 2: 125-129. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2004.03.039

  • Uptake of iron and its effect on grain refinement of pure magnesium by zirconium

    Cao, P., Qian, M., StJohn, D. H. and Frost, M. T. (2004) Uptake of iron and its effect on grain refinement of pure magnesium by zirconium. Materials Science And Technology, 20 5: 585-592. doi:10.1179/026708304225012314

  • Heterogeneous nuclei size in magnesium-zirconium alloys

    Qian, Ma, StJohn, D. H. and Frost, M. T. (2004) Heterogeneous nuclei size in magnesium-zirconium alloys. Scripta Materialia, 50 8: 1115-1119. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2004.01.026

  • An analysis of the effect of grain refinement on the hot tearing of aluminium alloys

    Easton, M., Wang, H., Grandfield, J., St John, D. H. and Sweet, E. (2004) An analysis of the effect of grain refinement on the hot tearing of aluminium alloys. Materials Forum, 28 224-229.

  • Corrosion behaviour of magnesium in ethylene glycol

    Song, G. L. and St John, D. (2004) Corrosion behaviour of magnesium in ethylene glycol. Corrosion Science, 46 6: 1381-1399. doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2003.10.008

  • Corrosion resistance of aged die cast magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Song, G. L., Bowles, A. L. and St John, D. H. (2004) Corrosion resistance of aged die cast magnesium alloy AZ91D. Materials Science And Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure And Processing, 366 1: 74-86. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.08.060

  • Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys

    McDonald, S. D., Dahle, A. K., Taylor, J. A. and St John, D. H. (2004) Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. Metallurgical And Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy And Materials Science, 35A 6: 1829-1837. doi:10.1007/s11661-004-0091-y

  • Evaluation of the BEASY program using linear and piecewise linear approaches for the boundary conditions

    Jia, JX, Song, G, Atrens, A, St John, D, Baynham, J and Chandler, G (2004) Evaluation of the BEASY program using linear and piecewise linear approaches for the boundary conditions. Materials And Corrosion-werkstoffe Und Korrosion, 55 11: 845-852. doi:10.1002/maco.200403795

  • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D in contact with an aluminium alloy, steel and zinc

    Song, G. L., Johannesson, B., Hapugoda, S. and St John, D. (2004) Galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D in contact with an aluminium alloy, steel and zinc. Corrosion Science, 46 4: 955-977. doi:10.1016/S0010-938X(03)00190-2

  • Graduate attributes in relation to curriculum design and delivery in a Bachelor of Materials Engineering Programme

    Atrens, A., Truss, R. W., Dahle, A., Schaffer, G. B., St John, D. H., Caceres, C. and Gates, J. D. (2004) Graduate attributes in relation to curriculum design and delivery in a Bachelor of Materials Engineering Programme. International Journal of Engineering Education, 20 5: 834-848.

  • Modification-related porosity formation in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys

    McDonald, S. D., Dahle, A. K., Taylor, J. A. and St John, D. H. (2004) Modification-related porosity formation in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B-Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 35 6: 1097-1106. doi:10.1007/s11663-004-0065-x

  • Morphological features of interfacial intermetallics and interfacial reaction rate in Al-11Si-2.5Cu-(0.15/0.60)Fe cast alloy/die steel couples

    Winkelman, G. B., Chen, Z. W., St John, D. H. and Jahedi, M. Z. (2004) Morphological features of interfacial intermetallics and interfacial reaction rate in Al-11Si-2.5Cu-(0.15/0.60)Fe cast alloy/die steel couples. Journal of Materials Science, 39 2: 519-528. doi:10.1023/B:JMSC.0000011507.38552.19

  • Semisolid microstructural evolution of AlSi7Mg alloy during partial remelting

    Wang, H., Davidson, C. J. and St John, D. H. (2004) Semisolid microstructural evolution of AlSi7Mg alloy during partial remelting. Materials Science And Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure And Processing, 368 1-2: 159-167. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2003.10.305

  • Thixotropic structure formation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys by controlled nucleation

    Wang, H., Ning, Z. L., Yao, X., Davidson, C J and St John, D. H. (2004) Thixotropic structure formation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys by controlled nucleation. Materials Forum, 28 1316-1321.

  • Alloying of pure magnesium with Mg-33.3 wt-%Zr master alloy

    Qian, M., Graham, D., Zheng, L., St John, D. H. and Frost, M. T. (2003) Alloying of pure magnesium with Mg-33.3 wt-%Zr master alloy. Materials Science And Technology, 19 2: 156-162. doi:10.1179/026708303225010849

  • AMC-SC1: A new Magnesium alloy suitable for powertrain applications

    Bettles, C. J., Forwood, C. T., Jones, D. S., Griffiths, J. R., Frost, M. T., St John, D. H., Qian, M., Song, G-L. and Nie, J. F. (2003) AMC-SC1: A new Magnesium alloy suitable for powertrain applications. SAE Transactions, 112 5: 726-732.

  • Method for determining reaction rate of mild steel containers during melting of magnesium-aluminium alloys and effect of aluminium content on directionally solidified microstructures

    Nave, M. D., Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2003) Method for determining reaction rate of mild steel containers during melting of magnesium-aluminium alloys and effect of aluminium content on directionally solidified microstructures. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 16 4: 427-433. doi:10.1179/136404603225006404

  • Effect of a short solution treatment time on microstructure and mechanical properties of modified Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg alloy

    Zhang, D. L., Zheng, L. H. and StJohn, D. H. (2002) Effect of a short solution treatment time on microstructure and mechanical properties of modified Al-7wt.%Si-0.3wt.%Mg alloy. Journal of Light Metals, 2 1: 27-36. doi:10.1016/S1471-5317(02)00010-X

  • Halo formation in directional solidification

    Nave, M. D., Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2002) Halo formation in directional solidification. Acta Materialia, 50 11: 2837-2849. doi:10.1016/S1359-6454(02)00104-0

  • Characteristic zirconium-rich coring structures in Mg-Zr alloys

    Qian, Ma, St John, D. H. and Frost, M. T. (2002) Characteristic zirconium-rich coring structures in Mg-Zr alloys. Scripta Materialia, 46 9: 649-654. doi:10.1016/S1359-6462(02)00046-5

  • Effect of melt cleanliness on the formation of porosity defects in automotive aluminium high pressure die castings

    Tian, C., Law, J., van der Touw, J., Murray, M., Yao, J. Y., Graham, D. and St. John, D. (2002) Effect of melt cleanliness on the formation of porosity defects in automotive aluminium high pressure die castings. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 122 1: 82-93. doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(01)01229-8

  • Modelling of microstructure formation and evolution during solidification

    Yao, X., Davidson, C. J., Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2002) Modelling of microstructure formation and evolution during solidification. International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 15 3: 219-223.

  • The effect of zirconium grain refinement on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium-rare earth alloy MEZ

    Song G. and StJohn D. (2002) The effect of zirconium grain refinement on the corrosion behaviour of magnesium-rare earth alloy MEZ. Journal of Light Metals, 2 1: 1-16. doi:10.1016/S1471-5317(02)00008-1

  • A model of grain refinement incorporating alloy constitution and potency of heterogeneous nucleant particles

    Easton, M. A. and St John, D. H. (2001) A model of grain refinement incorporating alloy constitution and potency of heterogeneous nucleant particles. Acta Materialia, 49 10: 1867-1878. doi:10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00368-2

  • A practical method for identifying intermetallic phase particles in aluminium alloys by electron probe microanalysis

    Ma, Q., Taylor, J. A., Yao, J., Couper, M. J. and St John, D. H. (2001) A practical method for identifying intermetallic phase particles in aluminium alloys by electron probe microanalysis. Journal of Light Metals, 1 3: 187-193. doi:10.1016/S1471-5317(01)00012-8

  • Dendrite coherency of Al-Si-Cu alloys

    Veldman, N. L. M., Dahle, A. K., St John, D. H. and Arnberg, L. (2001) Dendrite coherency of Al-Si-Cu alloys. Metallurgical And Materials Transactions A-physical Metallurgy And Materials Science, 32 1: 147-155. doi:10.1007/s11661-001-0110-1

  • Development of the as-cast microstructure in magnesium-aluminium alloys

    Dahle, A. K., Lee, Y., Nave, M., Schaffer, P. L. and St John, D. H. (2001) Development of the as-cast microstructure in magnesium-aluminium alloys. Journal of Light Metals, 1 1: 61-72. doi:10.1016/S1471-5317(00)00007-9

  • Formation of defect bands in high pressure die cast magnesium alloys

    Dahle, A. K., Sannes, S, St John, D. H. and Westengen, H (2001) Formation of defect bands in high pressure die cast magnesium alloys. Journal of Light Metals, 1 2: 99-103.

  • Microstructural evolution and defect formation in Al-Si-Cu-Mg foundry alloy during solidification

    McDonald, S., Dahle, A. K., Taylor, J. A., St John, D. H. and Zindel, J. W. (2001) Microstructural evolution and defect formation in Al-Si-Cu-Mg foundry alloy during solidification. Die Casting Bulletin, 88 12-19.

  • Solution treatment effects in Al-Si-Mg casting alloys: Part 1 - intermetallic phases

    Taylor, J. A., St John, D. H., Zheng, L., Edwards, G. A., Barresi, J. and Couper, M. J. (2001) Solution treatment effects in Al-Si-Mg casting alloys: Part 1 - intermetallic phases. Aluminium Transactions: An International Journal, 4-5 95-110.

  • Solution treatment effects in Al-Si-Mg cating alloys: Part 2 - Solid solution chemistry

    Taylor, J. A., St John, D. H. and Couper, M. J. (2001) Solution treatment effects in Al-Si-Mg cating alloys: Part 2 - Solid solution chemistry. Aluminium Transactions: An International Journal, 4-5 111-124.

  • The causes of ribbon shaped defects in magnesium die castings

    Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2001) The causes of ribbon shaped defects in magnesium die castings. Giesserei-Praxis, 7 284-290.

  • The influence of certain elements on porosity formation in an AlSi9Cu3 casting alloy

    Otte, M., Schneider, W., St John, D. H. and Taylor, J. A. (2001) The influence of certain elements on porosity formation in an AlSi9Cu3 casting alloy. Giesserei Forschung, 53 1: 1-14.

  • The shear behaviour of partially solidified Al-Si-Cu alloys

    Sumitomo, T, StJohn, DH and Steinberg, T (2000) The shear behaviour of partially solidified Al-Si-Cu alloys. Materials Science and Engineering A-Structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, 289 1-2: 18-29. doi:10.1016/S0921-5093(00)00936-9

  • A K Dahle and D H St John, "Prevent banded defects in high-pressure diecast magnesium alloys", Invited Feature Article

    Dahle, A. K. and St John, D. H. (2000) A K Dahle and D H St John, "Prevent banded defects in high-pressure diecast magnesium alloys", Invited Feature Article. Modern Casting, 90 2: 43-46.


  • DAVID ST. JOHN | Levis Remembered

    A Reading by David St. John
    captured September 22, 2010 at Levis: A Celebration, a conference marking the acquisition
    of the Levis papers by the VCU Libraries & presented here as part of Levis Remembered

    You need to have Flash Player and Javascript enabled to hear the audio.

    David Wojahn: Hello everyone, I’m David Wojahn. I’m a member of the English Department in the Creative Writing Program here at VCU, and I want to welcome you to this very special event . A three day celebration of the poetry of Larry Levis, who is a poet who has made an enormous impact on American poetry and on many, many of the people in this room, and over the next several days we are going to celebrate his legacy. It’s a very important legacy. Before I introduce our reader tonight, David St. John, I do want to thank a plethora of organizations and individuals, all of whom have come together to celebrate Larry Levis’s legacy. Too many really for me to mention right here, but a couple of them tonight really require special mention because they have been so essential in getting this event going on. I especially want to thank Mary Flinn, who has done so much, so much to foster Larry’s legacy and so much to make this event possible. Ditto my wonderful colleague, Greg Donavan, who has also been instrumental and finally a third person, John Ulmschneider,the head of the University Libraries who has been instrumental in helping to purchase Larry’s papers for VCU and to make this event possible. Finally, I want to thank Sheila Brady and Buck Levis who have come heremembers of Larry’s family who have supported the Levis Prize for many yearsand thank you very much for your presence here too.

    David St. John is our premiere reader tonight. He’s been a presence on the literary scene for some thirty-five years now, since the publication of his first book, Hush, in 1976. He is one of our most ambitious, one of our most elegant, and one of our most searching poets. A great colleague of Larry Levis, a great presence in our literary culture for several decades, and we thought it would be fitting that David be the person to open these events.

    Thanks very much everyone, I’m really pleased you’re here.

    David St. John: I was talking to Phil last week just about how difficult it’s been in these past couple of weeks thinking about being here and thinking about Larry. I met Larry when I was eighteen. I was a freshman at Fresno State and he was a senior. And we’ll be talking some about Larry during those days. But I enrolled for the very last class that was listed in the Fresno State schedule of classes under English, and it was called “Cross Cultural Expressions of Contemporary Man.” It was the sixties, remember. And what I didn’t know was that it was open only to seniors. It wasn’t open to freshmen like me. But I got there and found out it was not really a class—it was six weekend retreats at different places up in the Sierras. There was no way you were getting me out of that class, all right. So José Elgorriaga, the wonderful Spanish teacher and at times cotranslator from the Spanish with Phil, let me stay in, and it was there that I met Larry and Bruce Boston, and it changed my life. And I remember there was a dance at the Rainbow Ballroom in Fresno, an end-of-the-semester dance, and Larry came up to me, kinda in his Larry way, and said, “You know, Phil Levine’s teaching an introduction to poetry class in the spring.” I said, “No, I didn’t know that.” And he said, “And you’re going to take it.” And I did. And that changed my life. When we were in Iowa City, I went to Iowa to get an MFA when Larry went to get a PhD. At one point as his life was changing, he moved in with me and lived with me ‘til the end of his time there. He was my closest friend in or out of poetry.

    I’d like to start with an early poem that’s an elegy for my grandmother. And as epigraph, her name and dates are given: Vivian St. John, 1891-1974. What you need to know was that she had this extraordinary two-acre landscape garden. Not far from where Phil and Franny live. And when she bought the land, it was fig stumps, it is an area of Fresno called the Fig Garden. And I once asked her, I said “How did you get all those fig stumps out? Did you get a tractor and have somebody haul the stumps out?” And she said, “No, no, no. No, no, no. No. Dynamite.” And I said to her, “You had somebody come and dynamite every one of those stumps?” And she said, “Well, why would I pay someone to do it?” She was a formidable woman. The prize of her garden were her iris beds. And they were spectacular, and this poem is called “Iris.”

    [“Iris,” David St. John, Study for the World’s Body: New and Selected Poems, HarperCollins, 1994.]

    So, one of the first people to ever see that poem is here tonight, and it was Stan Plumly. I showed him two poems: a poem called “Hush” and this poem “Iris.” He said, “Get back to work.” 

    One of Larry’s and my friends at Iowa was the poet Norman Dubie. And Norman and Larry and I, after we had all gone our separate ways, would check in with one another just to see what the latest stories being told about us happened to be. We’d say, “Ah, man, guess what I heard about you.” I mean, many of you here know that poets love to gossip. I mean love to gossip. The fact of it being true or not is completely irrelevant. Invention and the imagination, of course, are the most important things in gossip. My old student Liam Rector—Liam used to call American poetry “Deep Gossip.” So this is a poem about my own response to that gossip. And it’s called “Gin.”

    [“Gin,” David St. John, Study for the World’s Body: New and Selected Poems, HarperCollins, 1994.]

    This is a book called Prism. This is a book of poems and photographs, and the photographs are by a wonderful poet from Fresno named Lance Patigian. And Lance went to University of Arizona and became enthralled with the photography center and moved from poetry to photography. This is a book that he and I dedicated to Phil and Franny in gratitude for everything that they have given us. It’s a book of fourteen-liners, with only one or two exceptions, and I’m just going to read one of the poems. But they’re meant to be really breathless. Michael Collier, who’s here, had invited me to come to Middlebury, to Bread Loaf, one summer. And I was having a great time—James was there, forcing me to misbehave. And the Fellow from my workshop was the fabulous Terrance Hayes, who has become a good friend. And so I was just having such a great time that I actually began to write. I mean, it just seems, to me now, inconceivable I could be that happy. But, you know, I started writing the poems in this book Prism. This poem, all of the poems you need to know, have as their title something that indicates a particular color. The first poem in the book is white. It moves through the spectrum in lots of variations, and the last color is white. This is a poem that cheats, because it actually, as you’ll see, involves two colors. I lived in Rome for a year and this takes place in Rome. The main drag up the center of Rome is just called the Corso. I think that is all you need. The poem is called “Bumble Bee.”

    [“Bumble Bee,” David St. John, Prism, Arctos Press, 2002.]

    I’d like to read some new poems from a manuscript called The Auroras, and then I’ll end with a poem from my last book, The Face. This is called “The Aurora of the New Mind.”

    [“The Aurora of the New Mind,” David St. John, unpublished.]

    About six months ago, I started writing a group of poems that were somewhat different for me. They were more stripped down. They all had specific landscapes, western landscapes. I’ve only read some of these one other time, and so I wanted to hear how they’d sound. This is called “In the High Country.”

    [“In the High Country,” David St. John, unpublished.]

    And this is called, “From a Bridge.”

    [“From a Bridge, David St. John, unpublished.]

    And this is called “Hungry Ghost.” It’s a Buddhist concept of the Hungry Ghost, but this is a more particular Hungry Ghost.

    [“Hungry Ghost,” David St. John, unpublished.]

    And one more of these. This is your two-poem warning. There’s a bar in Kingston, Jamaica called Creque Alley and we know it because that’s where John Phillips of the Mamas and the Papas wrote the song “Creeque Alley,” although he spells it differently than the bar. There’s also, as you’ll discover in the poems, in San Francisco, a strip of clubs and bars called Creque Alley because it’s all Caribbean and African clubs. And this poem is called “Creque Alley.” I tried to call it “Paul.” It’s like George Harrison—they asked him what he called his haircut and he said, “Arthur.”

    [“Creque Alley,” David St. John, unpublished.]

    And one last poem. This is a section of this book called The Face.

    [“XXVII,” David St. John, The Face: A Novella in Verse, Harper Perennial, 2005.]

    Thank you.  


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