Essays On Counselling Theories

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Essay about Evaluating the Main Theories of Counseling

1932 Words8 Pages

This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic.

The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna, collecting information from his patients such as feelings, thoughts and early childhood experiences.

The psychodynamic theory focuses on the unconscious mind. Freud’s credence is that different mental forces operate in the mind. The unconscious mind can be described as being like an iceberg. The…show more content…

The Id is the unconscious state of mind; it is responsible for our voluptuous and immediate satisfaction. It is our basic drives such as life instincts (Eros) and death instincts (Thantos); it is also responsible for our libido (sexual instinct).
The Ego is the conscious state, the rational mind which organises our thoughts and makes sense of them. This develops during the first two years of life.
The Super Ego aims for perfection, it works in contradiction to the Id. It controls our sense of right and wrong.
Part of Freud’s theory was that the Id, Ego and Super Ego were in constant conflict with each other. It involves the Id wanting immediate satisfaction and the super ego who wants the id/person to behave leaving the ego constantly trying to resolve the issue.
The Ego uses a number of defence mechanisms to protect itself; these mechanisms are designed to reduce anxiety and stress. Some defence mechanisms include; repression, displacement, projection, denial and intellectualisation.

Techniques used by Psychodynamic therapists consist of; dream therapy (making sense of dreams and interpretation into reasons behind them), hypnosis and free association.

While most psychodynamic theories did not rely on experimental research the methods and theories of psychodynamic thinking contributed to experimental psychology.
Psychodynamic Therapy was the first therapy used in attempting to explain mental illness and has had great

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counselling theory essay

1690 WordsJan 21st, 20147 Pages

Unit 2: Introduction to Counselling Skills Theories
Theory Essay

In this essay I will describe key elements of Psychodynamic theory, Person-Centred theory and Cognitive-Behavioural theory. I will also identify the key differences between the above theories. I shall also describe how counselling theory underpins the use of counselling skills in practise. I will then end with my conclusion.

1.1 Key elements of psychodynamic theory
Dr Sigmud Freud (1856-1939), is the founder of the psychodynamic approach. Dr Sigmud Freud believed that childhood experiences and unconscious thoughts had an effect on people’s behaviour.
Psychodynamic counselling refers to the inner most deepest unconscious traumas and…show more content…

Cognitive-behavioural theory (CBT) is a kind of psychotherapeutic treatment that enables patients to comprehend the thoughts and feelings that control their behaviours.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is more frequently used to treat an extensive range of disorders such as depression and anxiety.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is widely short-term and concentrates on enabling clients to deal with very particular problems. Often six weeks to six months sessions of course depending upon the problem it is pacifically goal directed and places great weight upon self-help as a long term coping tool that the client can take away with them and successfully use. Cognitive-behavioural therapy believes that clients can learn the wrong ways of developing and making sense of information during their cognitive development. This can often lead to distortions in the way they identify reality, it’s the job of the therapist to enable them to work this out.
According to Dryden, 2007, p.299
“Cognitive therapy first came to the attention of British psychologists and psychiatrists through the pioneering work of the British researchers who sought to evaluate the efficacy of Beck’s treatment for depression.”
Cognitive-behavioural theory can be used on a one to one basis or in a group setting. It is said that in order for cognitive-behavioural therapy to be effective, the client

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