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The atomic bomb was more destructive than any other weapon ever produced. Clearly its destruction power was greater than the world had ever known. The atomic weapon was invented for the sole purpose of being used in warfare. In 1943 America began something called the Manhattan Project.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, an atomic scientist from Germany, headed this project. The U. S. dropped two atomic bombs on two Japanese cities in of 1945 to put an end to the Second World War. The atomic bombs ending World War II, disastrous effect on society as a whole, and its opening the door for advancement of scientific research in the atomic field, played an important role on its impact of the 20 th century.
During the war in Europe, the U. S. did not enter the war until it was bombed by Japan. Out of all the countries in the world, the U. S. was by far the most socially advanced during the war.
During the First World War, the side America chose to fight for received the victory. The same result happened in the Second World War. When America dropped the bombs on Japan, it was not only the end of the war, it was a statement from America saying they were not a country to reckon with. When America entered the Second World War they were already booking for a way to end it. A military atomic research project was set up in the United States. It was top secret and code named the Manhattan Project.
Millions of dollars were spent on building the research stations, which soon employed thousands of scientists, technicians, and engineers. The Manhattan project was under the overall control of and American general but an American physicist named J. Robert Oppenheimer, headed the research team, which included some of the worlds most brilliant physicists (Killingray). The bomb that the U.
S. produced was dropped on two Japanese cities to end the war. The Manhattan Project was a great success. America had once again put an end to a major world war. When America developed the atomic bomb they did not understand the destruction power it possessed. In a matter of minutes it killed almost 100, 000 people and wiped out an entire city off the face of the planet.
Using the atomic weapon greatly lessened the need for ordinary soldier warfare. With the power of the atomic bomb countries have no need, or significantly less need, for soldiers. Using this weapon made warfare a scary thought. The Atomic Weapon killed millions of people. No one knew exactly what effects the atomic blast would have so inevitably no one knew what to expect when the bombs were dropped on Japan. The results were far greater than anyone could have ever imagined.
During World War II, America chose to drop two atomic weapons on Japan. An account of the disaster follows: At precisely 8: 15 on 6 august, a nuclear chain reaction in the bomb carried by that parachute built up a temperature of several million degrees centigrade. In 0. 1 millisecond, a fireball of 300, 000 degrees Celsius was created and expanded to 250 yards in diameter one second after the bomb had been detonated. Hiroshima had been the target of the first atomic bomb.
A third of the population of 300, 000 are dead, many of them killed mercifully outright from the blast; more by the firestorm that ripped through the city fanned by fierce man made winds; and thousands are dying daily from the effects of deadly radiation burns. (Daniel) The atomic weapon killed thousands. For the people of Japan and many people around the world it was the most frightening thing that they could ever imagine. Those were the last Atomic bombs to ever be dropped in warfare. Atomic weapons had many more effects than just the first blast. The initial obliteration of everything within a 100 -yard radius is not the end of an atomic bombs power.
Many different things happen after the bomb has been dropped such as fallout and nuclear radiation. People were still dying years after the bomb had been dropped. Leonid Tarassuk and Claude Blair explain in the following the lasting effects of an atomic weapon: Fifteen percent of the energy produced by an atomic bomb is released in the form of various nuclear radiations, which are extremely dangerous on account of the biological destruction they may cause. About a third of these radiations appear at the time of the explosion; the other two thirds, which last a comparatively long time appear when dust, with a high content of nuclear radiation, falls to earth as fallout.
Fallout may be local, appearing a few hours after the explosion; tropospheric al, appearing after a few months; or stratospheric al, remaining active over a period of several years. Fallout can last for years and can contaminate not just the target but also many other areas. All testing sites for nuclear weapons are in places that are uninhabited and away from major areas for this reason. When the bombs were dropped they destroyed more than just two major Japanese cities.
The atomic bomb that ended the Second World War had devastating effects on not only Nagasaki and Hiroshima, but also on the entire country of Japan. A first eye account of the bomb droppings is stated here: On august 6 th and 9 th of 1945, American plane dropped one atomic bomb each on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The first bomb destroyed 80 percent of Hiroshima's buildings and killed about 80, 000 people. The second bomb killed about 35, 000 people. Japan surrendered to America after Nagasaki, but the people of Japan suffered failing health and horrible deaths for years afterward due to the effects of atomic radiation. (The Atom Bomb Forever Changes War) Japan spent years rebuilding not only those two cities but also their entire nation.
Since the Second World War, no country has dropped another nuclear weapon in warfare. The effects were just too disastrous. When atomic bombs were produced they were the most destructive weapons the world had ever seen. Now the science of atomic and nuclear weaponry is far greater advanced.
In the 1950 s thermonuclear weapons or H-Bombs were developed with explosive power far greater than the atom bombs of 1945 " (Campbell) ." In the 1990 s nuclear power is used for more than just weapons. It can be used in peoples homes. The knowledge that is known now about atoms and subatomic particles is used for more than just war. The creating of Nuclear Weapons greatly advanced scientific research in this field. One such way is Nuclear Fusion: Nuclear fusion is the combination of light atoms.
When combined part of the mass of these elements is converted into energy and, if this change is fast enough, a nuclear explosion will result (Campbell). Thermonuclear weapons rely on fusion for their power. Another advancement was Fusion Reactions: Fusion reactions, discovered early in the 1930 s, are highly exotic; while the energy produced is generally less than that in fission reactions. Advancement into the scientific research of fusion, allows for more diversity in the size of the weapons being produced (Bomb).
Scientists made even more great advancements. Another one was Nuclear Fission: Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nuclei of heavy atoms (Campbell). Both of the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan relied on fission for their power. Here Campbell explains how they use there energy: Atomic bombs make use of the energy released in a fission chain reaction; a nucleus of high atomic number, when bombarded by a neutron, absorbs it, and at the same time splits into two fragments with atomic numbers about half that of the initial nucleus, plus a certain number of free neutrons. Fission produces far more power than fusion.
Now we can produce atomic and nuclear Weaponry more much technologically advanced and much more powerful than the bombs dropped on Japan. The atomic bombs ending world war II, disastrous effect on society as a whole, and its opening the door for advancement of scientific research in the atomic field, played an important role on its impact of the 20 th century. Atom Bomb Forever Changes War. 6 March 2000 web Campbell, Christopher. Nuclear Weapons Fact Book. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984 Daniel, Clifton, ed. Atom Bomb Wiped Out Japanese City Chronicle of the World.
Mount Kisco, N. Y. : Chronicle Publications, 1987. Killingray, David. The Atom Bomb.
St. Paul, MN: Green haven Press, Inc, 1980 Leonid Tarassuk and Claude Blair, eds. Bomb. The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons.
New York: Bonanza Books, 1986 Bibliography:
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Research essay sample on J Robert Oppenheimer Second World War
A Photo-Essay on the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Hiroshima, Japanese city, situated some 8M km. (500 mi.) from Tokyo, on which the first operational atomic bomb was dropped at 0815 on 6 August 1945. Nicknamed 'Little Boya reference to Rooseveltthe bomb was 3 m. (9 ft. 9 in.) long, used uranium 235, had the power of 12.5 kilotons of TNT, and weighed 3,600 kg. (nearly 8,000 lb.).
Much discussion by a Target committee had preceded the decision to make Hiroshima the first target. To be able to assess the damage it caused, and to impress the Japanese government with the destruction it was expected to wreak, it was necessary to choose a city that had not yet been touched by the USAAFs strategic air offensives. Kyoto was also considered but its unrivalled beauty ruled it out.
The bomb was delivered by a US B29 bomber, nicknamed Enola Gay, from the Pacific island of Tinian. Dropped by parachute it exploded about 580 m. (1,885 ft.) above the ground, and at the point of detonation the temperature probably reached several million degrees centigrade. Almost immediately a fireball was created from which were emitted radiation and heat rays, and severe shock waves were created by the blast. A one-ton (900 kg.) conventional bomb would have destroyed all wooden structures within a radius of 40 m. (130 ft.). Little Boy destroyed them all within a radius of 2 km. (1.2 mi.) of the hypocentre (the point above which it exploded). The terrain was flat and congested with administrative and commercial buildings, and the radius of destruction for the many reinforced concrete structures was about 500 m. (1,625 ft.), though only the top stories of earthquake-resistant buildings were damage or destroyed. Altogether an area of 13 sq. Ikm. (5 sq. mi.) was reduced to ashes and of the 76,000 buildings in the city 62.9% were destroyed and only 8% escaped damage.
Within 1.2 km. (.74 mi.) of the hypocentre there was probably a 50% death rate of the 350,000 people estimated to have been in Hiroshima at the time. Hiroshima City Survey Section estimated a figure of 118,661 civilian deaths up to 10 August 1946 (see Table). Add to this a probable figure of 20,000 deaths of military personnel and the current figurefor people are still dying as a result of the radiation receivedis in the region of 140,000. Among those who survived, the long-term effects of radiation sickness, genetic and chromosome injury, and mental trauma have been catastrophic, even unborn children having been stunted in growth and sometimes mentally retarded.
Committee on Damage by Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings (London, 1981).
Nagasaki, Japanese city on which the second operational atomic bomb was dropped. Nicknamed 'Fat Man' (a reference to Churchill), the bomb, which used plutonium 239, was dropped by parachute at 1102 on 9 August by an American B29 bomber from the Pacific island of Tinian. It measured just under 3.5 m. (11 ft. 4 in.) in length, had the power of 22 kilotons of TNT, and weighed 4,050 kg. (nearly 9,000 lb.). The aircraft's first target was the city of Kokura, now part of Kitakyushu, but as it was covered by heavy cloud the aircraft was diverted to its second target, Nagasaki.
Unlike Hiroshima, Nagasaki lies in a series of narrow valleys bordered by mountains in the east and west. The bomb exploded about 500 m. (1,625 ft.) above the ground and directly beneath it (the hypocentre) was a suburb of schools, factories, and private houses. The radius of destruction for reinforced concrete buildings was 750 m. (2,437 ft.), greater than at Hiroshima where the blast caused by the bomb was more vertical. But because of the topography, and despite the Nagasaki bomb being more powerful, only about 6.7 sq. km. (2.6 sq. mi.) of Nagasaki was reduced to ashes compared with 13 sq. km. (5 sq. mi.) of Hiroshima. Of the 51,000 buildings in the city 22.7% were completely destroyed or burt, with 36.1 % escaping any damage.
Among the 270,000 people present when the bomb was dropped, about 2,500 were labour conscripts from Korea and 350 were prisoners-of-war. About 73,884 were killed and 74,909 injured, with the affected survivors suffering the same long-term catastrophic results of radiation and mental trauma as at Hiroshima.
Committee on Damage by Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings (London, 1981).
Nagasaki Journey: The Photographs of Yosuke Yamahata
On August 10, 1945, the day after the bombing of Nagasaki, Yosuke Yamahata began to photograph the devastation. His companions on the journey were a painter, Eiji Yamada, and a writer, Jun Higashi.
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