Physics Form 4 Essay




is the rate of change of velocity2.


is the degree of a measuring instrument to record readings close to the actual value3.

Apparent depth

is the distance of image from the surface of the water4.

Archimedes’ principle

states that when an object is immersed fully or partially in a fluid, theweight of fluid displaced is equal to the buoyant force experienced by the object5.

Atmospheric pressure

is the pressure which results from the collision between the gasmolecules of the atmosphere with a body6.

Base quantity

is a physical quantity that cannot be defined in other terms of physicalquantities7.

Bernoulli’s principle

states that in a moving fluid, the points which have a higher velocity willexperience a lower pressure whereas points with a lower velocity will experience a higherpressure8.

Boiling point

is the temperature at which the substance changes from a liquid to a gaseousstate, where the change occurs throughout the liquid9.

Boyle’s law

states that for a fixed mass of gas at a fixed temperature, the pressure of gas isinversely proportional to its volume10.

Buoyant force

is an upward force acting on an object partially or fully immersed in a fluid11.

Charles’ law

states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of gas is directly proportional tothe absolute temperature of the gas if the pressure is constant12.

Consistency / Precision

is the degree of a measuring instrument to record consistent readingsfor each measurement by the same way13.

Critical angle

is the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction, r = 90⁰14.

Derived quantity

is a physical quantity derived by combining base quantities15.


is the distance in a specific direction16.


is the total path length travelled from one location to another17.

Elastic potential energy

is the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed18.


is a property of an object to return to its original shape and dimensions after anapplied external force is removed19.


is the capacity to do work20.

Focal length

is the distance between the centre of the lens to its focal point21.

Free fall

occurs when an object is falling under the force of gravity only, without any obstacles22.

Gas pressure

occurs when the gas molecules collide with the wall of the container23.

Gravitational acceleration

is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of gravitationalforce24.

Heat capacity

is the amount of heat required to change its temperature by 1⁰C25.

Hooke’s law

states that the extension of a spring,


is directly proportional to the stretchingforce acting on it provided the elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded26.

Elastic limit

is the maximum stretching force27.


is the change of momentum28.

Impulsive force

is the rate of change of momentum29.

Inertia (Newton’s First Law of Motion)

is the tendency of an object to maintain its state of stationary or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external force30.

Kinetic energy

is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion31.


is the amount of matter in an object32.

Melting point

is the temperature at which a substance changes its state from solid to liquid


Suitable cables used as transmission cable: 6.

Suitable liquid as coolant in car engine: 7.

Suitable liquid used in thermometer: 8.

Design of loudspeaker and hall to  produce loud and clear sound:

Design Reason The loudspeakers are not installed against each other. To avoid multiple reflections. Loudspeakers are installed at a far distance from each other. So that the distances of constructive and destructive interferences are  bigger. Use high powered loudspeakers. So that the sound output will be loud and clear. Use soft board for the wall of hall. To reduce echo of sound waves. Cover the floor with carpet or use sound  proof flooring. To avoid reflection of sound wave from the hard floor. Sitting area is arranged in the antinode region only. So that louder sound can be heard by audience.


Modifications to improve the reception television signals:

Design Reason Use wave of longer wavelength. To increase the effect of diffraction. Set up the transmitter on hill tops. The signal will not be  blocked. Install a relay transmitter on the hill top to amplify and retransmit the signals To increase the strength of signals Build a taller signal receiver at house. Able to receive the signals without disruption. Increase the strength of signals. The signals can travel further.

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